• Spanish families spent 736 million in 2017 on additional and private education, a sector in full swing in Spain

‘Shadow teaching’, coined at the turn of the century, is a term that includes private classes, private tutoring, and specialized exam preparation academies, an offer now added by online companies. This type of training -parallel to the official and regulated- experiences a boiling moment in Spain, where families spent in 2017. 732 million euros compared to the 246 million recorded in 2006. The purpose of this training is not necessarily to learn, but to “approve and emphasize”. This is stated in a complete ESADE report published a few days ago which shows that private classes have become the daily life of many students. “What used to be a luxury item becomes a essential goods& rdquor ;, concludes the report.

The countries that lead in ‘shadow education’ are far- Korea and Japan. 80% of Korean elementary school students and 90% of Japanese elementary school students are taught, which also has a large presence in less affluent states like China and India. In Europe, additional education has opened the curtain 90’s of the previous century due to, among other things, low teacher salaries. Currently, the sector is unstoppable. In the United Kingdom, the 27% of students between the ages of 11 and 16 receive this type of training. In Germany, the percentage reaches 40%.

In Spain, 24% of students

Under the auspices of Professor Juan Manuel Moreno, of the UNED, the ESADE study emphasizes that the data are still imperfect and incomplete, especially because of the difficulty in defining what ‘shadow education’ is and what is not. 2009 was the last year in which the OECD included a specific question in the PISA report. On that occasion, 60% of the students in the final years of ESO ensured that they received private classes or tutorials. A more recent study, from 2019, revealed that 22% of primary school pupils received private lessons, although this only refers to mathematics and science. Taking into account family spending, the ESADE report concludes that 24.2% of students take private classes in Spain.

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In 2006, Spanish households spent 246 million euros on additional training. The figure tripled in 2017 and reached 736 million. “The demand for ‘shadow education’ apparently did not suffer the consequences of the economic crisis (in 2008). Private classes, instead of being a luxury good, were a basic necessity good & rdquor ;, the study’s author agrees. “There is little doubt that ‘shadow education’ is growing unstoppably in Spain, although the volume of students is not as high as that of Asian countries or even other European countries. Contrary to what it may seem, this type of education it is not a predominantly urban phenomenon but it is growing strongly in small municipalities and rural areas.

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The reasons for the expansion

For many reasons. The first, due to the perception that the quality of schools has dropped and which must be compensated. Secondly, for the universalization of secondary education and the pressure to access the multiple. And third, families have fewer children and therefore they can afford to invest more in education.

Pass and perform, not learn

The expansion of private classes “brings about an increase in inequality because the richest families are the ones who can afford to invest massively in private tutors and other more sophisticated services.” The ESADE study emphasizes that the prevalence of ‘shadow education’ is not linked to a higher general level of education. “Your schedule is approve and highlight, not necessarily learning & rdquor ;. The author of the report emphasizes that in Spain, unlike in other countries, shadow education it does not displace regulated education. for now

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Reference-www.elperiodico.com

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