Before giving the order kill Ayman al-Zawahiri, The president of the United States, Joe Biden, wanted to understand intimately where the leader of Al Qaeda was hiding.
The American drone attacks that killed Zawahiri on his balcony in central Kabul it was the product of months of highly secret planning by Biden and a narrow circle of his top advisers. Among the preparations was a small-scale model of Zawahiri’s safe house, built by intelligence officials and placed inside the White House Situation Room for Biden to examine as he debated his options.
For Biden, the opportunity to take down the world’s most wanted terrorist, one of the masterminds of the September 11, 2001, attacks, was fraught with the risk of accidentally killing civilians in the Afghan capital, just as an attack did. with US drones 11 months ago during the chaotic US military withdrawal from the country.
Details of the attack and its planning were revealed by a senior administration official as Biden prepared to announce the mission Monday.
Throughout the months-long effort to plan this weekend’s attack, Biden repeatedly tasked his officials with making sure civilians, including members of Zawahiri’s family, were not killed. None were, according to the White House.
Biden, who went into isolation due to a COVID-19 infection during the final deliberations and authorization of the strike, came out to proclaim success on a White House balcony on Monday. It was a moment of victory for a president who has been beset by internal political problems dating back to the deadly withdrawal from Afghanistan a year ago.
“People around the world no longer need to fear the vicious and determined killer. The United States continues to demonstrate our resolve and our ability to defend the American people against those who seek to harm us,” Biden said from the White House Blue Room Balcony.
The president was first briefed in April on Zawahiri’s location in a safe house in Kabul by US intelligence. US officials had been aware of a network supporting the terror leader in the Afghan capital for months and had identified his wife, daughter and children through multiple intelligence streams.
The women used terrorist “crafts” that officials said were designed to prevent anyone from following them to Zawahiri’s location in a Kabul neighborhood. Zawahiri himself did not leave the place after his arrival this year.
As the months passed, US officials began to establish patterns in the house, including Zawahiri periodically appearing on the house’s balcony for extended periods of time.
As officials continued to monitor their activities, a top-secret effort began to analyze the building’s construction and structure, with a view to developing an operation to take down the world’s number one terrorist target without compromising the building’s structural integrity.
The most important thing for Biden and members of his team was to prevent the deaths of civilians, including members of Zawahiri’s family who lived in the building. Independent analysts from across the government were involved in identifying the other occupants of the house.
That the building was located in the center of Kabul presented its own challenges.
Surrounded by a residential neighborhood, officials kept in mind that their planning and information needed to be “rock solid” before presenting any options to Biden. And they were very careful about leaks: Only a “very small and select group” in a scattering of key agencies was told of the plans being hatched.
Biden was also concerned about how it could affect US efforts to secure the return of Mark Frerichs, a US citizen taken hostage in Afghanistan more than two years ago. A senior administration official said Biden pushed his team to mitigate the risks of those efforts, along with ongoing attempts to relocate Afghans who helped the United States during the war.
“Going forward with the Taliban, we will continue to hold them accountable for their actions. And we have made it clear to them in the intervening days that we also hope they will not take action that would harm Mark Frerichs, as we were involved in the efforts to secure his release after he was killed. his long detention and captivity,” the official said.
As May and June progressed, Biden kept abreast of developments. On July 1, he assembled key national security officials in the White House Situation Room for a briefing on a proposed operation. CIA Director Bill Burns, Director of National Intelligence Avril Haines, National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan and his deputy Jon Finer, and National Security Advisor Liz Sherwood Randall sat around the table.
Biden was “deeply engaged in the briefing and immersed in the intelligence,” a senior official said. He asked “detailed questions about what we knew and how we knew it.”
Of particular note was a scale model of Zawahiri’s home that intelligence officials had built and brought to the White House for the president to examine. Biden questioned how the sun could illuminate the house, its building materials and how the weather could affect any operations, the official said.
“He was particularly focused on ensuring that all necessary steps were taken to ensure that the operation would minimize the risk” of civilian casualties, according to the official.
Biden asked his team for more information about the plans for the building and how a strike might affect it. He flew to Camp David later that afternoon.
His team stayed behind, meeting several times in the Situation Room over the next several weeks to complete their planning, answer the president’s questions, and make sure they had taken all contingencies to minimize risks.
A parallel effort by senior administration lawyers was underway to examine intelligence related to Zawahiri and establish the legal basis for the operation.
On July 25, while isolating with COVID-19 in the White House residence, Biden reconvened his team for a final briefing. He again pushed at a “granular level,” the official said, asking about any additional options that might minimize civilian casualties.
He asked about the layout of the house, where the rooms were placed behind the windows and doors on the third floor, and what potential effect the strike would have.
And he went around his team, asking the opinion of each referee.
In the end, he authorized a “precise and tailored airstrike” to finish off the target.
Five days later, two Hellfire missiles were fired at the balcony of the safe house in Kabul at 6:18 am local time. “Multiple streams of intelligence” confirmed that Zawahiri was killed.
Members of his family, who were in other areas of the house, were uninjured, the official said.
Biden, still isolated in the White House residence with a rebound COVID infection, was briefed when the operation began and when it ended.